ISLAMIC PREACHING IN THE HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL CONTEXT

Kastolani, (2020) ISLAMIC PREACHING IN THE HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL CONTEXT. UNSPECIFIED.

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Abstract

when Ira M. Lapidus (1988) with his A History of Islamic Societies has disclosed the history of Islam employing a socio-cultural approach, and Philip K. Hitty (1937) with his A History of the Arabs presented documentation of political-cultural history, this book in your hands is focused on read Islamic history utilizing cultural and structural preaching approach that has interconnected with political history. The main thesis of this book is that political revival emerges to escort intellectual revival, and political revival also accompanies the revival of religious movements. Thus, the political stagnation will adversely affect the survival of the intellectual movement and automatically stagnation of the religious movement. Political awakening will eventually pave the way for the emergence of various political activities, as well as intellectual and religious. This is where the role of politics in influencing the spread of Islam throughout the history of Islamic civilization. This book is intended as a form of in-depth exploration and critical analysis of the historical development of Islamic preaching (da’wa) that always coincides with political history. Although this book isnot as thick as the two magnum opus above, this book attempts to reveal the missing link of historical Muslim society that covers Islamic preaching movement. We are fully aware that the development of Islam in the context of preaching (da’wa) always goes coexistence with the dynamics of political contestation, both in the prophetic and caliphate periods. So that, giving a deep exploration and analysis related to this field is crucial for developing study of Islamic history. Moreover, realizing that the history books existing so far both in Arabic, English and Indonesian, still tend to understand Islamic politics separately from Islamic preaching (da’wa). Consequently, the mainstream of Islam is closely linked to the agenda of warfare and regional expansion in the interests of political and economic power. The long journey of Muslims in their history has been full-fledged by debates and polemics, both those derived from Muslim scholars (insider) and Orientalists perspective (outsider). Each debates whether Islam is a religion that requires violence, warfare and territorial expansion to force humanity embracing Islam. Many Muslim and non-Muslim historians have reported how Islam worked on the stage of political history and preaching (da’wa). Not a few of them still believe that Islam supports the agenda of war, violence, and even the slaughter of humanity with various historical arguments and facts. Indeed, the assumption can be justified on the surface, but the assumption is actually nothing more than sentimental perception which is then supported by a subjective perspective to locate Islam in a position vis a vis humanity. This notion is completely dangerous and detrimental to the whole image of Islam. The impact is that emerging stereotype Islam as a religion of terrorists simultaneously Islam is a doctrine which teaches its adherents to commit murder and terror. This conception is influenced by misleading and misinterpretation of reading to the history of Islam and also misconception in the perspective of reporting history of Islam which tend to separately look at Islam from a partial method. Thus, giving an understanding actually castrate Islam and ultimately exacerbate the image of Islam in front of humanity. Indeed, the biggest problem in the study of history is the gap between historical actors, historical reviewers, and historical writers which results in recording or writing of history distorted or contradictory between reality and observation. For this reason, examining history must be continually tested and criticized fairly and honestly. Nevertheless, we do not speak in the context of how Islam must always be positively portrayed and framed beautifully without any criticism in it. However, the authors through this book would like to convey to the reader that history of Islam in each of its contestations has human values as the basis of awareness of faith. Islam of history is Islam that has undergone throughout various stages of examining the times. Islam that is present today is not a normative Islam as Islam was firstly created in the 7th century Arabian Peninsula. Reading history of Islam especially history of politics cannot merely be done with a normative-documentary approach yet must go through the stages of analytical aspects and situations that influence an event objectively, honestly and fairly. A partial and normative historical approach will only present a rigid Islam with a myriad of heroisms of war experiences. Islam will be displayed aggressively in responding to the orders of da’wa and using a variety of ways to be able to conquer other areas to share the sacred mission. Islam is a missionary religion in which every adherent has an obligation to wave flag of peace within the framework of monotheism. The spirit of da’wa in Islam is essentially a noble and sacred intention to share grace (dar as-salam) both in the world and in the hereafter. Therefore, every Muslim feels that he has a noble mission to tell the truth to the others. Historically, the Islamic preaching journey has always coincided with political history, especially the history of warfare. Historical facts have recorded a series of long lists of wars in the context of Islamic preaching in various regions outside the birthplace of Islam. Unfortunately, many of the Muslims themselves still tend to understand the process of Islamic preaching dominated by the agenda of war and military expansion. The failure of the arrest was caused by a tendentious model of reporting on the history of Islam and tending to see Islam from the perspective of political power. This book draws great attention to the extraordinary process of spreading Islam, whether through expansion, trade, negotiation, or other persuasive forms. In fact, more than a third of the world’s people embrace Islam and make Islam a value, concept, and guide in life. This book seeks to explain the development of Islamic civilization from the point of view of the relationship between the Islamic preaching patterns and the political civilization. In general, this book is divided into three sections which will explain systematically section by section the periodization of the development of Islamic preaching. The first part of this book explains conceptually-theoretically aboutIslamic preaching and all of its relation to strategy and methods. At the beginning of this discussion, it is intended as a basis for understanding preaching in both theoretical and historical contexts. The terminology used in this book follows previous discussions, where this book clearly distinguishes between cultural and structural preaching as a unit of comparative analysis. In general, through this section, this book aims to lead the reader towards understanding the preaching more flexible and can adapt to the changing context of the times. This portion is intended as an important provision in helping readers browse through the pages of the discussion of the history of Islamic preaching and politics in Islam which is indeed a bit complicated and emotional. The second part of this book records the construction of Islamicpreaching in the classical period, that is the period of the Prophethood and the Khulafah al- Rashidun, which is more inclusive-defensive, with patterns that are still very simple. This book examines that the new Islam was born in Mecca with all forms of minority and vulnerability to apply the principles of Islamic preaching that is closed and limited to ethnic-tribe and very narrow areas. Although this pattern then changed rapidly when Islam succeeded in forming the State of Medina and established its power. Islam in this period underwent a transformation from complex social doctrines and systems to a number of operative principles of society. This period encouraged the growth of a mass society driven and regulated in the alignment of political and religious institutions. So, the Islamic preaching patterns through the expansion path began to be adopted but still with a defensive and negotiable way. Islam under the leadership of Muhammad SAW was more gracious with the diversity of religions in the Arabian Peninsula. This section presents the reconstructive side of Islamic warfare as a form of social realism, preaching (da’wa), politics and culture, which is precisely intended as a form of peace enforcement. Even more fundamentally, the wars that occurred in the period of prophetic history were carried out with great attention to human values. Muhammad’s heroism in the history of Islamic preaching has been widely recorded in various sirah (biographical) books, for example by Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham. It is through their works that today we can find out in detail about the life and struggle of the Prophet SAW. Through these sirah books, we can certainly know how the Prophet Muhammad was involved in various wars, both directly led by him (ghazwah) and military expeditions led by shahabat (sariyah). For example, the Prophet SAW advised when killing enemy who was already helpless, he should avoid the part of his face, because in that face there is the honor of humanity. This ethical principle follows in accordance with the command of the Qur’an that Muslims are forbidden to kill enemies who have said their greetings, declared peace, even without first proof. Islam also upholds the degree of someone who prefers forgiveness rather than revenge or fighting with the aim of retaliation. Therefore, this book rejects Bassam Tibi’s idea that Islam does not have a complete worldview of the ethics of warfare or borrow the term Tibi, there is no Islamic pacifism. The third part of this book reveals the shifting patterns of Islamicpreaching that were initially more inclusive-defensive and shifted to more aggressive and expansive patterns. This shift was largely due to changes in caliph’s political policies, especially in the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, which signaled the need for expansion of Islamic power. Da’wa orientation in this period shows a more pragmatic and authoritative nature. The desire of the Caliphate expanding the Islamic dominion is also due to the impetus of economic motives that can increase state income. So, Islam in this period was more filled by the expansion and conquest of the region. Da’wa patterns in this period are more uniform because they do not support the existence of other da’wa patterns such as dialogue and negotiation. Islamic preaching in this period gave the impression of being more expansive through wars which made a bias between the interests of political power and the interests of Islamic preaching. The fourth part of this book describes the footsteps of Islam tryingto walk in the modern times and more influenced by Western modernity which is experiencing a revival. Thus, the pattern of Islamic preaching in this period is more indicative of the protective-defensive nature of Western imperialism. Islamic preaching experienced an onslaught from inside and outside, ranging from civil war, economic setbacks, to the revival of European economic politics and their cultural dominance. Albeit, Islam has become the majority religion in the Eastern world starting from the Middle East, Central Asia and China, India, Southeast Asia, Africa, Islam experienced a political crisis with the weakening of Islamic rule with the destruction of a number of Muslim empire and the formation of national states. This section also explores patterns of consolidation and cooperation between Islamic countries in integrating political power and Islamic institutions with non-Islamic values and social patterns. On the other hand, this section also describes how the success of Islamic preaching in the form of dynamic interactions between Islamic values and social cultural values. Islam in this period depicts its accommodative power in framing and uniting various ethnic backgrounds, languages, political organizations and cultural and technological patterns. Islam has become a totality value of life expressed in various concepts, norms, social ties and the desire to fulfill happiness. This book is concluded with the fact that the form of Islam to the present day shows the flexibility of Islamic preaching patterns in a long series of history and the identity of the Islamic worldly system. Islamic preaching which always attaches or even leads the Islamic political system has succeeded in bringing Islam to various faces and perspectives. This diversity is something that must be appreciated and constructed positively to portray that Islam is a dynamic religion but without losing its vital importance as a protecting of human values. By examining the historical patterns of Islamic preaching in the contestation of politics, this book explains the structure of the evolutionary shift of the Islamic preaching movement and the political reform in its form as it developed in contemporary Muslim societies. Finally, this book is result of a long discussion with colleagues and intellectual writers’ forms of anxiety from contemporary Islamic conditions that tend to be displayed in an arrogance style. We understand when Islam is associated with “politics” the imaginary image in everyone’s mind is “Islamic religion of war”. As its history illustrates how the power of the Caliphate has done a lot of regional expansion and warfare. It is hoped that this book can become a critical reflection and alternative solution in reviewing Islam and its history more comprehensively and fairly.

Item Type: Book
Subjects: Agama > Sejarah Islam
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email bimoharyosetyoko@iainsalatiga.ac.id
Date Deposited: 12 Nov 2020 12:34
Last Modified: 12 Nov 2020 05:37
URI: http://e-repository.perpus.iainsalatiga.ac.id/id/eprint/9925

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